PERIO - Periodontal Practice Today 2 (2005), No. 2 (11.07.2005)
The Influence of Anxiety on Gingival Inflammation, Attachment Level and Inflammatory Markers in GCF from Subjects with Periodontal Disease
Johannsen, Annsofi / Söder, Birgitta
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine if self-reported anxiety had an association with gingival inflammation and attachment level (AL), and with the amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and elastase in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF).
Material and methods: The participants were 51 subjects with adult chronic periodontis (26 men and 25 women), with a mean age of 53.5 (±2.9 SD) years (48-57 years). The subjects were clinically examined and answered questions regarding anxiety in everyday life, as well as smoking habits. GCF was collected with an intracrevicular washing technique from four sites in each subject. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and non-parametric Mann Whitney U-test were used as the statistical methods.
Results: Anxious smokers had an average GI of 2.1 (±0.7 SD) compared to the non-anxious smokers 1.3 (±0.9 SD), p<0.05. Attachment loss was significantly more pronounced in anxious smokers than in non-anxious smokers, p<0.05. No association between self-report anxiety and inflammatory markers in GCF was found.
Conclusion: The present study showed no differences between anxious and non-anxious subjects with periodontitis in relation to the range of biochemical inflammatory markers. Anxious smokers had significantly more gingival inflammation and attachment loss than non-anxious smokers.
Keywords: anxiety, gingival inflammation, periodontitis, smoking, inflammatory markers