PERIO - Periodontal Practice Today 5 (2008), No. 4 4. June 2009
PERIO - Periodontal Practice Today 2 (2005), No. 2 (11.07.2005)
Descriptive Study About the Influence of General Health and Sociocultural Variables on the Periodontal Health of Early Menopausal Patients
Machuca, Guillermo / Rodriguez, Sonia / Martinez, Maria-Angeles / Bullon, Pedro / Machuca, Carmen / Scully, Crispian
Purpose: The purpose of the study was 1) to assess the periodontal condition of a population of early menopausal women and 2) to investigate the relationship between these and other variables such as demographics, oral hygiene and clinical variables.
Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was developed at the outpatient section of a gynaecology department of a hospital in Seville, Spain, during one year. A sample of 67 menopausal women were periodontally evaluated. The periodontal variables studied were plaque index (PI), probing bleeding index (PBI), gingival level (GL), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). The relationship with other demographic variables, oral hygiene and clinical variables were evaluated too. The statistical test used was ANOVA with post hoc test Bonferroni, multiple regression analysis and ANCOVA. The significance level was p<0.05.
Results: The mean of PI was 69.3±3.07%. The PI was statistically significantly increased when frequency of brushing was lower (p<0.025) and previous dental care was less frequent (p<0.0033). The mean of PBI was 36.5±3.35%. The PBI was significant in relation to higher tobacco consumption (p<0.024) and a less frequent previous dental care (p<0.014). The mean of GL showed a gingival retraction of -0.83±0.07mm. The GL was significantly reduced in hypertensive patients (p<0.017), in those on antihypertensive treatment (p<0.0097) and in those who had had more than two previous pregnancies (p<0.0358). The mean of CAL was 3.24±0.1mm. The CAL was significantly reduced in individuals who smoked five to 20 cigarettes a day (p<0.005). The mean of PD was 2.5±0.05mm. This PD was correlated significantly with smoking five to 20 cigarettes a day (p<0.0003).
Keywords: provision of oral health; periodontal/epidermis; logical disease; periodontal/physiopathological disease; menopause/adverse effects